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To colour time with psychological significance, as serious Astrologers have done for centuries, first divide the year into its seasonal quarters indicating the precise onset of Winter/Summer Equinox and Solstice. Now further sub-divide these seasons into middle and end, making twelve signs in total. Each sign lasts for approximately one month.
Representing the beginning of either an Equinox or a Solstice: Aries ♈ Cancer ♋ Libra ♎ and Capricorn ♑.
After a Cardinal sign ends is the middle of the season: Taurus ♉ Leo ♌ Scorpio ♏ and Aquarius ♒
Heralding the end month of each of each season: Gemini ♊ Virgo ♍ Sagittarius ♐ and Pisces ♓
There is a serious side and a frivolous one to many subjects but especially to astrology. To the modern, psychological astrologer the subject really concerns cyclical time and its effects on human consciousness. To the ancients it was about colossal and fateful activities of the gods which is to say forces over which we have no terrestrial control. To the new age progressive, astrology is about twinkling heavens, astral influence and feel-good kitsch. The first two are really the same, the third is unconsciously akin to the medieval market in spiritual indulgences that served to excuse ordinary bad behaviour.
Mars doesn't synchronise with Earthly seasons, so why does it share zodiacal attributions? Although sun signs do correspond precisely with seasons on earth, the astronomical fact behind this is the ecliptic longitude of the earth's orbit. Every system needs a zero-point for calibration and measurement, and still today, astronomers and astrologers, both, use the moment of vernal equinox as longitude zero for every object in space.
To illustrate the zodiacal system, imagine each planet as an actor with his/her personality given by the length of planetary year (Saturn is oldest, Mercury is youngest), and each zodiac sign as the stage in which he is currently playing. Each planetary year then becomes a literary metaphor for a whole life or career, and each zodiac sign then becomes a way-point on your own journey.
Your birth time signifies a starting configuration, with the full expectation of experiencing every stage. An astrologer who knows the symbolic attributions of the zodiac and planets can use your chart to generate consistent narrative that can help you understand the idea of a genuine progress or even pilgrimage through life. Without such guidance our old age will tend to sneak up on us in a terrifying manner. Astrology has remained in use not by being scientifically consistent, but by being symbolically helpful.
At the precise moment when day length equals night length, a notional line of extension is projected from the centre of Earth out through the Prime Meridian at Greenwich to strike the zodiacal belt at the exact start of a notional sign of Aries. This was an observed longitude, nominated as longitude zero in the year 2000. In 2050 another survey will replace this system with a new scientific observation. All calculations for planetary positions other than in these officially observed years are based on maths/physical modelling.
The astronomical fact is that the line of the Vernal Equinox does not cross the constellation of Aries as it once did in Babylonian times. This is a common source of confusion. It needn't be, astrologers are only concerned with stars in the same way that clock time is measured by numbers circling around a clock face.
There are no plausible theories of a 'star effect' when it comes to astrology. The magick relates to the period of planetary orbit and applied seasonal poignancy, not to the backdrop decoration given by the constellations. We sort of pretend the Earth is still aligned as it was when the system was first devised. In technical terms we 'correct for precession' so that our observations remain consistently grounded by the temporal fact of our Earthly seasons.