is in Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Sweden. Norway also has borders with Russia and Finland.
Norway's dependencies are Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of
Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom
occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a
union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians
resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution.
then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for
accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th
century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway
remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping.
On 7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved; On 26 October
1905 Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union.
Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was
nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949,
neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil
and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes.
In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.