Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533.
Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824.
After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980.
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Administrative divisions: 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
The international dialling code for Peru is 51.